Archive | Migration

Migrant inflow edges up, big flow into Auckland

New Zealand’s net inflow of migrants clicked up another notch last month as the immigrant number jumped over 12,000 and the net for the year rose by 97 from June to 72,402 for the 12 months to July.

One figure in the equation has been fairly static: emigration has been running at about 5000/month, though it edged up above 5800 this July.

On the other side of the ledger, more immigrants arrive in July than in June, and those July arrivals have ramped up in the last 4 years, exceeding 10,000 in 2014, 11,000 in each of the next 2 years and reaching 12,390 last month, compared to 5843 exits.

The net inflow has been around 6500 for each of the last 3 Julys, 6547 this time.

There was still a net inflow from Australia for the year, but not for the month – a net outflow of 11 for the month (1866 arriving, 18877 leaving) and a net inflow of 469 for the year (25,428 in, 24,959 out).

The net inflow from India was well down for the year – 9267 in (12,508 last year), 1823 out (1195) for a net inflow of 7444 (11,313).

The net inflow from China for the year was 9961 (10,110) – 12,276 in (12,220), 2315 out (2110).

From the UK, the net inflow rose by 2366 to 6750 (4384) – 15,216 in (13,624), 8466 out (9240).

New Zealanders are still heading overseas, albeit the net outflow has shrunk. The July outflow has been around 2900 for 4 years (2949 this time) and the inflow was around 2300 for 3 years, but rose to 2604 this July. The net outflow for the month was 345 (517).

The net outflow of Kiwis for the last 6 years has been: 39,682 in the 12 months to July 2012, the, 29,932 in 2013, 11,004 in 2014, 5597 in 2015, 3069 in 2016 and 1112 this year.

Auckland migration

Migrant arrivals into Auckland were up in July at 5440 (5069), and by 6234 for the year to 59,447 (53,213). The net inflow into Auckland for the last 3 July years has risen from 27,395 to 31,951 to 36,753 (up by a net 4802 in the last 12 months).

Attribution: Statistics NZ tables.

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Immigrants drive 2%/year population growth, 10-14yos decline

New Zealand’s population grew by over 2% in each of the last 2 June years, and by a record 100,400 in the last 12 months.

Over the last 5 years, the population grew by nearly 390,000 – exceeding the population of Christchurch.

At 30 June, Statistics NZ estimated the resident population at 4.79 million. By tonight, it exceeded 4.8 million – 4,805,505 on the Statistics NZ population clock as I write.

Over the last 4 years the natural increase has been under 30,000/year, compared to annual increases up to 36,200 during the previous 7 years.

The migrant figure went negative in the June 2012 year – 3200 more people leaving than arriving – but in the last 4 years the net migrant inflow has totalled 238,000, of whom 72,300 have arrived in the last 12 months.

Statistics NZ said the current gain from net migration equated to 15 people:1000 population. Population statistics senior manager Peter Dolan said much higher net migration rates were experienced in the late 1870s, and similar rates to today were also experienced in the early 1900s & early 2000s.

“Our current net migration rate is high by New Zealand standards, but historically it has fluctuated more than other countries. At the moment we’re experiencing rates similar to Australia’s in 2009.

“Most migrants are arriving on short-term work & student visas. However, many of them extend their visas, or transition to other visa types including residence visas. It makes sense to count long-term stayers as part of our population, rather than as short-term visitors.”

Mr Dolan said half of last year’s growth was in the 15–39 age group: “This reflects the contribution of migration to our population growth, with net migration of 50,000 among those aged 15–39 years.”

As a result of recent migration flows, the share of New Zealand’s population aged 15–39 years rose from 33% in 2013 to 34% in 2017. This was a reversal of the trend that saw that bracket’s share drop from 41% in the mid-1980s.

Growth of the broad 65+ age group has continued to accelerate, up 25,000 in the last year, as the large birth cohorts of the 1950s-early 1970s begin to reach those ages.

The population at the oldest ages is also growing, reflecting decreasing death rates at all ages over a long period of time. The 90+ population is now 30,000, compared with 20,000 in 2007. It’s projected to reach 40,000 in the late 2020s and 50,000 in the early 2030s.

One group that has increased more slowly is the under 5s – up by just 800 in the last year and by 12,720 over 10 years. The 10-14 age group’s numbers rose in the last year, but both the last 2 years were lower than 10 years ago – 306,380 in 2007, 294,330 last year, 301,360 this year.

Link, and links to graphs:
National population estimates at 30 June 2017

Attribution: Statistics NZ release & tables.

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Half the record net migrant inflow is into Auckland

The net inflow of migrants continued to rise in June, reaching a record 72,305 for the June year – and 50% of that total was into Auckland.

Immigrants giving Auckland as their destination rose by 6142 to 59,076 for the 12 months, rising from 42.3% to 45% of all immigrants. The number not giving a final destination fell from 21,244 (17%) to 18,840 (14.3%).

The meteoric rise in net immigration over the last 5 years – from a net outflow of 3191 in the June 2012 year – has resulted from a combination of rising immigrant numbers and declining emigrant numbers. But in the last 12 months that picture has changed slightly.

For June, the number of immigrants was up by 950 to 9158, continuing a steady rise since 2010. On the departures side of the ledger, emigrants dropped to 4534 last June but rose to 5145 last month.

For the June year, arrivals rose from 82,305 in 2010 to 131,355 in the last 12 months, with big jumps in 2014-216, slipping back to a rise of 6300 in the last months. Departures declined from 87,593 in the June 2012 year to 55,965 in the June 2016 year, but bumped up to 59,050 in the last 12 months.

For Auckland, the net inflow in June was 2106 (1726 & 1571 in the previous 2 years). For the June year, the net inflow rose from 26,834 to 31,778 to 36,650 – 50.7% of the total net inflow.

The number of immigrants from Australia dropped slightly for both month & year – by 70 for the month to 1612, and by 262 for the year to 25,441.

Exits to Australia rose for both month & year – by 160 to 1781 for the month, and by 1111 to 24,881 for the year. The net gain shrank from 1933 to 560 for the year.

Other major immigrant sources for the year were China with a net inflow of 10,351 (9688 the previous year), India 7409 (12,118, down chiefly because student visa numbers declined), the Philippines 4646 (5010), the UK 6728 (4138) & South Africa 4867 (3054).

Attribution: Statistics NZ tables & release.

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The migration debate: Which way forward?

Statistics NZ will publish the monthly migration figures this Friday and, on recent trends, the net inflow is likely to be just over 72,000/year. The Labour Party believes it can cut that by 20-30,000/year by enforcing rules more tightly.

Gareth Kiernan.

On Friday, economist Gareth Kiernan warned that cutting the number sharply could cause a slump. Mr Kiernan’s premise seemed to be that more migrants were needed to service the needs of more migrants, and that cutting the number of migrants would take away the workforce needed to service those extra migrants.

His second point was not about migrants but about the behaviour of the Reserve Bank. His slump would arise not so much from cutting immigration but from the central bank ignoring changes in the economy and raising interest rates anyway, thus harming the economy.

All political parties agree that immigrants should add to New Zealand, not detract, and the Government’s critics take that a step further, saying the direction “export education” has taken, toward low-level learning & backdoor entry to permanent residency status, should therefore be curtailed.

Who builds our houses?

The first irony in New Zealand’s immigration debate is that many of the companies building much-needed houses in Auckland are owned by immigrants, often with investor support in Hong Kong or China.

You could say that, without so many immigrants from Asia, the input of these Chinese builders wouldn’t be needed. However, 2 of New Zealand’s biggest housing companies through decades, Universal & Neil, have been Asia-owned for years. A third, GJ Gardner, is an Australian franchise. Would New Zealand have built as many houses as it has in recent years without that foreign input?

How to get voters to switch – or not

The second irony is that, since 1972, no party (or party in coalition) has held power beyond 3 consecutive terms, but Labour & the Greens appear determined to hand National a fourth term because they haven’t enunciated policies which will pull voters to them from outside their bases.

As I was writing this, a new campaign call for support arrived in my inbox from the Greens. In the middle of its worthy aspirations was this sentence: “To do this, we need to you.”

We all make mistakes, but I read that puzzling sentence shortly after trying to wade through the party’s verbiage on migration, which read more like a call to support refugees and close the door to people the party doesn’t like, notably rich people.

Under policy point 5, Selecting voluntary migrants, I took greatest delight in point 4, which followed a statement that “people shouldn’t be able just to buy their way into Aotearoa”:

  1. Tighten up on scams in which overseas millionaires buy up NZ property by making business-development promises that they don’t keep. We will do this by
  2. Using a 3-year provisional visa for investor migrants
  3. Undertaking annual audits of investor migrants’ businesses via extended case management, paid for by the business being audited
  4. Ensuring that the audits include checks for viability, sustainability & desirability and are undertaken by immigration officials, an accountant & a marketing consultant. These audits, prepared independently, together with a police report & any complaints, will form the basis of the decision.

I’ve always found the chip-on-shoulder view of life is as distorted as the silver spoon version, and bludgeoning aspiring Kiwis with this vengeful kind of red tape doesn’t seem a good way to make friends.

Labour acknowledges migrant heritage, but…

The Labour Party acknowledges New Zealand’s immigrant heritage in its policy, but says National, in its 9 years heading the Government, “has failed to make the necessary investments in housing, infrastructure & public services that are needed to cope with rapid population growth. This has contributed to the housing crisis, put pressure on hospitals & schools, and added to the congestion on roads.”

Labour, in government, had an immigrant spike in 2003-04 – unannounced, unmanaged and, because local councils had no warning of the influx, they weren’t prepared to cope with it. The economic boost helped the party get re-elected in 2005. National’s spike of the last 3 years has gone for longer, but both have left large infrastructure deficits and speculation-promoting price escalation as direct consequences.

Labour reckons it can cut net immigration by 20-30,000/year.

That’s going to happen anyway as soon as Australia gets back on to what had been assumed to be a never-ending economic growth path, so the immigration cut in New Zealand could go deeper, reducing the net inflow to 10-20,000/year.

Australians thought wrecking the economy was beyond the ability of any politician, but finally they found a couple who could do it. However, the mining sector is looking more positive by the day and “the lucky country” will soon be just that again, and thereby thoroughly inviting to thousands of New Zealand tradesmen.

When those tradesmen start to head west again, New Zealand will once more be left pondering how to fill the gaps. Kneejerk responses aren’t an effective alternative to sound long-term policies, but kneejerk is where the migration debate has headed.

GST sharing rebuff was an opportunity missed

The National government’s unwillingness to share gst windfalls from the rise in tourist numbers made it plain that the governing party’s floundering was exasperating business people around the country; an opposing party that offered a raft of constructive new economic policies incorporating changes to tax distribution could have lifted its vote immensely.

Slump talk

Mr Kiernan, Infometrics’ chief forecaster, thrust his tuppence-worth into this policy abyss on Friday, when the economic forecasting company’s latest predictions indicated gdp growth would slip below 2%/year this year – before any further help downward from politicians slashing migration.

The threatened migration clampdown would lead to an economic slump, he wrote, adding: “New Zealand’s economic growth is being constrained by shortages of labour in key areas, and this problem will become more widespread if there is a significant & rapid tightening in migration policy following this year’s election”.

Slower near-term growth in construction activity & household spending would cut growth, he said.

“Although growth is forecast to rebound during 2018, that pick-up is contingent on the continued supply of labour provided by foreign migrants coming to New Zealand for work, on which businesses have become increasingly dependent.

“High levels of immigration have undoubtedly contributed to stresses around infrastructure & the housing market, particularly in Auckland. But employment growth of more than 1%/quarter over the last 18 months demonstrates the need for workers across the economy.

“Without these inflows of foreign workers & returning New Zealanders, businesses would have struggled to meet growing demand, and cost pressures would be even more intense in areas such as the construction & tourism sectors.”

Mr Kiernan’s warning invites the question: If the number of immigrants falls, so too will demand, and the economy should become more manageable, supposedly enabling a catch-up in the supply of infrastructure & houses. A slowdown, yes, but a damaging slump?

Mr Kiernan said cutting immigration this year would have negative repercussions for economic growth during 2018 & 2019, constraining activity through higher labour costs: “The inflationary risks associated with these cost pressures would also be likely to compel the Reserve Bank to raise interest rates sooner than would otherwise be the case.

“Given the slowdown already occurring in sales activity & house price growth, this potential cocktail of rising interest rates mixed with a government clampdown on migration would be lethal.

“Even with modest increases in interest rates from mid-2018, medium-term growth in household spending will be constrained by high debt levels, which have climbed from 146% to a record high of 167% since 2012.

“Faster lifts in mortgage rates & debt-servicing costs would threaten a jump in forced house sales, hastening a correction in the housing market and hammering consumer confidence.”

Those supposed consequences look like consequences of not adjusting policy to match changed conditions.

Mr Kiernan said the surge in migration over the last 4 years could have been more carefully managed, thereby preventing the housing market imbalances from becoming so critical. But, although he expected net immigration to gradually ease over the next 5 years, “a cautious approach is needed to avoid replacing one lot of problems in the economy with a completely new set. Ultimately, high migration levels are a positive reflection on New Zealand’s economic performance. We’ve been able to attract & retain workers in this country because our growth over recent years has outpaced that in other developed economies.”

Not quite true. A high proportion of immigrants have been low-level students-come-menial workers who have held bottom-rung wages down. At the same time they have increased demand for services, and for housing.

While I’ve said Labour hasn’t enunciated policies that would pull voters from other parties, elaborating on how a reduction in immigration would be done – and what it would achieve for other groups – would rebalance the political scales.

Links to party immigration policies:
Act
Greens
Labour
NZ First
TOP (The Opportunities Party)
Infometrics

Attribution: Infometrics release, party policies.

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Net migrant inflow just short of 72,000/year

The net inflow of migrants dropped slightly from April to May and fell 36 short of 72,000 for the year to May, according to Statistics NZ’s monthly figures released yesterday.

Statistics NZ also released a study yesterday of migrants from other countries using the easier entry to New Zealand as a backdoor way of getting into Australia (link below). That flow spiked in 2001, when Australia changed its welfare rules, and has fluctuated since.

The present rise in net immigration began in 2014 and the net inflow has doubled since then.

The annual net inflow hit 71,885 in April and rose to 71,964 in May, but the net inflow for the month of 3117 was down from April’s 3406.

Compared to last year’s figures, the monthly net inflow was up by 79 on last year and up by 3532 on the previous year.

The number of migrants arriving on student visas has dropped by 4000 to 23,700 for the year, principally affecting migration from India, which dropped by a net 4681. Net immigration from the UK jumped by 2592 to 6534 for the year, and from South Africa by 1801 to 4729. The net inflow from China was up by 551 to 10,218 for the year.

Net migration into Auckland for the month was 1899 (1493 last May), and for the year 36,270 (31,623).

Link:
Statistics NZ paper, 22 June 2017: Backdoor entry to Australia

Attribution: Statistics NZ tables & release.

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Migrant tide turning?

You could sense an almost imperceptible turning of the tide: the net inflow of migrants slipped by 47 for the year in the rolling 12-month count released by Statistics NZ on Friday.

After 3 years of substantial rises every April from a negative 28 in 2013 to a gain of 2424 and up by 500 more in each of the next 2 years, the flow stopped.

The change occurred in Auckland too – up another 1788 in April, but that was only 92 more than in April last year; the previous April the rise had been by 352. Auckland was up another 4282 over 12 months to a net inflow of 35,864, but that annual growth was down from 5476 the previous year.

It becomes a political question: the Government has 3-plus years of economic growth from the migrant tide in the bag, and that growth will continue. And although the Government’s not the dictator of personal travel preferences, will an easing of the inflow in the 4 months to the election change public perceptions that record immigration has been a highly negative influence?

The immigrant flow rose again, as it’s done every April since 2012, this time by 261 to 8637. The emigrant flow had been decreasing, but this April it rose by 308 to 5231.

The immigrant flow for the year rose by 5110 to 129,779 – that’s over 45,000/year more than in each of the 3 years 2010-12, and a 3-year supply in 2 years. On the other side of the equation, emigration peaked at 87,813 in 2012 and slumped to about 57,000 over the last 3 years. In the latest 12 months, it was 57,894, up by 1325 on the previous year.

The net inflow in April was 3406 (3453 the previous April), and the net inflow for the year was 71,885 (68,110 the previous year).

Australia & the 5 big inflows

Exits to Australia peaked at 53,904 in the August 2012 year, and the net outflow was running at around 40,000 in that period. Now the flow each way is about 24-25,000 – in the latest 12 months, 24,680 out & 25,460 in for a net gain of 780, down from 1721 the previous year.

The other 5 big net inflows are from China, India, the Philippines, the UK & South Africa.

For the 12 months to April, the net inflow from China was up at 10,225 (9615 the previous period), India’s was sharply down at 7792 (12,218), the Philippines was down at 4532 (5151), the UK was well up at 6439 (3891) and South Africa was also well up at 4749 (2730).

NZ citizen moves

The net outflow of NZ citizens was up in April compared to the 2 previous years, but nowadays you’re looking at very small numbers – 1025 in April (2067 in, 3092 out; the net outflows the previous 2 years were 960 & 969). For the year, the net outflow continued to slide, dropping from 3560 to 1406. In 2012 that outflow was a net 39,491; it dropped by 5000, then 20,000, in the next 2 years.

The annual inflow of non-citizens, at 97,810 in the last 12 months, was 36,000 more than in 2012. 24,519 non-citizens departed, the highest annual figure since 25,825 left in 2012. Net immigrant numbers have grown from a low of 32,416 in the April 2010 year to 73,291 in the latest 12 months.

For Auckland, arrivals have been up by 5000 in each of the last 2 years, rising from 47,868 to 52,870 to 57,885. Departures have been stable in a range 21,288-22,021. The net inflows to Auckland over those 3 years were 26,106, 31,582 & 35,864.

Attribution: Statistics NZ tables.

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Net migrant inflow tops 71,900 for year

New Zealand’s net migrant inflow jumped again in March to a new record of 71,932 over 12 months.

That’s 6.4% (4300) ahead of the net inflow in the previous 12 months.

The net inflow in March has exceeded 4000 for the last 3 years, and this time round the number jumped by 600 – 14% – to 4878.

The number of migrants coming into Auckland jumped by 13% in March, from 4194 a year ago to 5267, and by 10% for the year, from 52,443 to 57,710.

The net inflow to Auckland is up 14.5% over 12 months, from 31,230 to 35,772.

That means 49.73% of the whole net inflow over the last year has made Auckland the destination.

Statistics NZ said migrant arrivals in the last 12 months, 129,518, were a record, while departures were up by 1100 over the previous year to 57,586 after 4 years of declines.

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Government resets some immigration rules

Immigration Minister Michael Woodhouse announced a package of changes yesterday “designed to better manage immigration and improve the long-term labour market contribution of temporary & permanent migration”.

It amounts to cutting New Zealand’s cloth exactly to measure, prescribing precise requirements, instead of importing too many people with nowhere to go. What NZ Inc ought to have been doing through the immigration spike of the last 3 years, and what it ought to be doing now, is to present a strategy to receive newcomers which would entail jobs & homes outside Auckland. Instead of chasing builders to Australia at the last slump, NZ Inc would have thought about smoothing construction needs. Government-sponsored home construction is one option. Instead, as NZ First leader Winston Peters said yesterday, the changes amounted to “tinkering”.

Mr Woodhouse said: “The Government is committed to ensuring inward migration best supports the economy & the labour market. It’s important that our immigration settings are attracting the right people, with the right skills, to help fill genuine skill shortages and contribute to our growing economy. That is why we are making a number of changes to our permanent & temporary immigration settings aimed at managing the number and improving the quality of migrants coming to New Zealand.”

Changes to permanent immigration settings include introducing 2 remuneration thresholds for applicants applying for residence under the skilled migrant category, which would complement the current qualifications & occupation framework.

“One remuneration threshold will be set at the New Zealand median income of $48,859/year for jobs that are currently considered skilled. The other threshold will be set at 1.5 times the New Zealand median income of $73,299/year for jobs that are not currently considered skilled but are well paid.

“The skilled migrant category points table, under which individuals claim points towards their residence application, will also be realigned to put more emphasis on characteristics associated with better outcomes for migrants. Collectively, these changes will improve the skill composition of the category and ensure we are attracting migrants who bring the most economic benefits to New Zealand.”

The Government is also proposing a number of changes to temporary migration settings to manage the number & settlement expectations of new migrants coming to New Zealand on essential skills work visas.

The changes include:

  • The introduction of remuneration bands to determine the skill level of an essential skills visa holder, which would align with the remuneration thresholds being introduced for skilled migrant category applicants
  • The introduction of a maximum duration of 3 years for lower-skilled & lower-paid essential skills visa holders, after which a minimum stand-down period will apply before they are eligible for another lower-skilled temporary work visa
  • Aligning the ability of essential skills visa holders to bring their children & partners to New Zealand with the new skill levels
  • Exploring which occupations have a seasonal nature and ensuring that the length of the visa aligns with peak labour demand.

Mr Woodhouse said: “I want to make it clear that where there are genuine labour or skills shortages, employers will be able to continue to use migrant labour to fill those jobs. However, the Government has a Kiwis-first approach to immigration and these changes are designed to strike the right balance between reinforcing the temporary nature of essential skills work visas and encouraging employers to take on more Kiwis and invest in the training to upskill them.

“We have always said that we constantly review our immigration policies to ensure they are fit for purpose, and today’s announcement is another example of this government’s responsible, pragmatic approach to managing immigration.”

Public consultation on the changes to temporary migration settings closes on 21 May, with implementation planned for later this year.

Links:
Changes to better manage immigration
Speech outlining the Government’s plan for immigration
Pathway to residence for some South Island temporary migrants

Attribution: Ministerial release, my observation.

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Small rise in migrant inflow, but Auckland gain marches onward

New Zealand’s net migrant inflow continued upward in February, rising by 28 above the previous record, set in January, to 71,333 for the last 12 months.

The increase over the year to February 2016 was almost 4000, from 67,391.

For the month of February, the net inflow was 8609 (8581 a year earlier). Arrivals totalled 13,793 (13,267), departures 5184 (4686).

Exits to Australia jumped 10% for the month over a year ago to 2564 (2331), and the annual number of departures rose to 24,650 (24,204). Arrivals from Australia rose by 3 for the month to 2235, but are down over the year to 25,684 (25,810), reducing the net annual trans-Tasman gain to 1034 (1606).

The net outflow of NZ citizens continued to decline this February – 3059 out, 2662 in for a net outflow of 397 (439 last February). For the year, the net outflow was 1687 – 31,914 in, 33,601 out – down 57% from the previous 12 months. The next outflow in the February 2012 year was 38,769, falling to 36,713 in 2013 and 17,786 in 2014.

And the flow into Auckland continues, up 653 for the month and up nearly 4300 for the year. The net inflow for the month was 4543 (3890), and for the year 35,313 (31,035). Annual arrivals have risen from 46,954 2 years ago to 52,407 and now 57,156, while departures have held in a range from 21,370-21,850 over those 3 years.

Attribution: Statistics NZ tabales.

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Even in January, immigration leaps

The net migrant inflow leapt over the 71,000 mark for the January year. Long-term arrivals jumped by 1000 from last January to this one while exits rose by 300 for a net gain of 700 to 8446.

For the year, arrivals have risen by 5300 and exits have fallen by just 67.

The net amounts to a rise in immigration for the January year of just under 5400, to 71,305.

Arrivals from Australia were up by 29 and departures to Australia by 20, raising the inflow margin by 9 to 1264 for the year. 2 years ago it was a net outflow of 2888 and, in the previous 2 years, 17,064 & 37,936.

There is still a net outflow of NZ citizens, though not by much. For 6 of the 7 years to January 2013, NZ citizen exits for that month were in the range of 6-7000 and 2-3000 came home. The result over those 7 Januaries was an average outflow of 3800. Net exits for the month went under 1800 in January 2014, under 900 a year later, then to 474 and now to 385.

The annual net outflow has now fallen below the level for one month 3 years ago – 1729 versus 1781.

The latest annual NZ citizen outflow is 2500 below the level of the previous year and a quarter of the net outflow 2 years ago. Before that, the net outflow was measured in 5 digits – 19,687 in the January 2014 year, almost double that in each of the previous 2 years (37,922 & 37,602).

Of the 14,457 arrivals in January, 4400 said their destination was Auckland 1259 didn’t say where they were going.

Of the 128,290 arrivals in the January year, 56,231 (43.8%) said their destination was Auckland, up from 51,831 (42.2%) in the previous 12 months. The net annual inflow to Auckland rose by 3400 to 34,660 (30,369), or 48.6% of the net inflow, up from 48.05% in the 12 months to December.

The January figures set a number of records – the net inflow for the 12 months to December, 70,588, was the previous high. Migrant arrivals, at 128,290, were a record. The previous record, also set in December, was 127,305.

The net inflow from China took to place for the year again, passing India. For the 12 months to January, the net flow from China was 10,197 (9124 the previous year) and from India, 8560 (12,991 after student visa questions), followed by the UK 5981 (3680) & the Philippines 4580 (5127).

Statistics NZ said the 3,537,561 overseas visitors for the 12 months was a record, up 11.5% on the previous year, and the 2,635,331 NZ residents heading overseas was a record, up 8.9% on the previous year.

165,673 NZ citizens took off on overseas trips in January, up from 145,708 a year earlier, and 288,306 came back that month (262,570).

Attribution: Statistics NZ tables & release.

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